The field of tumor angiogenesis has seen explosive growth over the last 5 years. Preclinical as well as early clinical evaluation of novel compounds is progressing at a rapid pace. To gain a perspective on the field and to take stock of advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the process of tumor angiogenesis as well as ways of monitoring the activity of agents, the Society for Biologic Therapy and the National Cancer Institute's Vascular Biology Faculty convened a Workshop on Angiogenesis Monitoring in November 2002. The Workshop was composed of invited speakers and participants from academia, industry, and government. It was divided into 3 sessions, each chaired by leaders in the field. The first focused on advances in the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis in tumors. The second examined preclinical assay systems that are useful in vascular biology. The third addressed the translation to the clinic and monitoring of antiangiogenic activity of agents in patients and novel trial designs. What follows is a summary of the discussions and findings of each session.