The epidemiologic status of leptospirosis in Egypt has not been well defined because of difficulties in disease diagnosis. A retrospective study was conducted to detect leptospiral antibodies among undiagnosed acute febrile illness (AFI) and hepatitis cases. Approximately 16% of both AFI (141/886) and acute hepatitis (63/392) cases showed seroreactivity to Leptospira IgM by ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Canicola, Djasiman, Grippotyphosa, Pyrogenes, Icterohemorrhagiae, and Pomona were the most commonly reactive serovars among patients with AFI. Djasiman, Grippotyphosa and Icterohemorrhagiae were the most reactive among patients with acute hepatitis. This study represents the first systematic report of Leptospira associated with patients with AFI and hepatitis in Egypt. Physicians need to have increased awareness about the importance of leptospirosis in the differential diagnosis of AFI and acute hepatitis in Egypt. In addition, laboratory capacity should be developed at fever hospitals to diagnose leptospirosis.