Unresolved inflammation, due to insufficient production of proresolving anti-inflammatory lipid mediators, can lead to an increased risk of tumorigenesis and tumor cell invasiveness. Various bioactive lipids, particularly those formed by cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes, have been well established as therapeutic targets for many epithelial cancers. Emerging studies suggest that there is a role for anti-inflammatory bioactive lipids and their mediators during the resolution phase of inflammation. These proresolving bioactive lipids, including lipoxins (LXs) and resolvins (RVs), have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The molecular signaling pathways controlling generation and degradation of the proresolving mediators LXs and RVs are now being elucidated, and the component molecules may serve as new targets for regulation of inflammation and inflammation-associated cancers like colon and pancreatic cancers. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of how these bioactive lipids and proresolving mediators may function with various immune cells and cytokines in inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and progression and invasiveness of colon and pancreatic cancers.
- Colorectal cancer
- Pancreatic cancer