There is an often unspoken truth behind the course of scientific investigation that involves not what is necessarily academically worthy of study, but rather what is scientifically worthy in the eyes of funding agencies. The perception of worthy research is, as cost is driven in the simplest sense in economics, often driven by demand. Presently, the demand for novel diagnostic and therapeutic protein biomarkers that possess high sensitivity and specificity is placing major impact on the field of proteomics. The focal discovery technology that is being relied on is mass spectrometry (MS), whereas the challenge of biomarker discovery often lies not in the application of MS but in the underlying proteome sampling and bioinformatic processing strategies. Although biomarker discovery research has been historically technology-driven, it is clear from the meager success in generating validated biomarkers, that increasing attention must be placed at the pre-analytic stage, such as sample retrieval and preparation. As diseases vary, so do the combinations of sampling and sample analyses necessary to discover novel biomarkers. In this review, we highlight different strategies used toward biomarker discovery and discuss them in terms of their reliance on technology and methodology.