Scoping Evidence Review on Training and Skills Assessment for Open Emergency Surgery

Colin F. Mackenzie*, Eric A. Elster, Mark W. Bowyer, Nick Sevdalis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: Scope evidence on technical performance metrics for open emergency surgery. Identify surgical performance metrics and procedures used in trauma training courses. Design: Structured literature searches of electronic databases were conducted from January 2010 to December 2019 to identify systematic reviews of tools to measure surgical skills employed in vascular or trauma surgery evaluation and training. Setting and Participants: Faculty of Shock Trauma Anesthesiology Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland and Implementation Science, King's College, London. Results: The evidence from 21 systematic reviews including over 54,000 subjects enrolled into over 840 eligible studies, identified that the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill was used for elective surgery not for emergency trauma and vascular control surgery procedures. The Individual Procedure Score (IPS), used to evaluate emergency trauma procedures performed before and after training, distinguished performance of residents from experts and practicing surgeons. IPS predicted surgeons who make critical errors and need remediation interventions. No metrics showed Kirkpatrick's Level 4 evidence of technical skills training benefit to emergency surgery outcomes. Conclusions: Expert benchmarks, errors, complication rates, task completion time, task-specific checklists, global rating scales, Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills, and IPS were found to identify surgeons, at all levels of seniority, who are in need of remediation of technical skills for open surgical hemorrhage control. Large-scale, multicenter studies are needed to evaluate any benefit of trauma technical skills training on patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1211-1226
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Surgical Education
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Medical Knowledge
  • Patient Care
  • Practice-Based Learning and Improvement
  • Systems-Based Practice


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