Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Impact on Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine Efficacy

Rachel U. Lee*, Christopher J. Phillips, Dennis J. Faix

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


In 2009, a novel influenza A (pH1N1) was identified, resulting in a pandemic with significant morbidity and mortality. A monovalent pH1N1 vaccine was separately produced in addition to the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. Formulation of the seasonal influenza vaccine (injectable trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine [TIV] vs. intranasal live, attenuated influenza vaccine [LAIV]) was postulated to have impacted the efficacy of the pH1N1 vaccination. Methods. We reviewed electronic health and databases, which included vaccination records, and healthcare encounters for influenza-like illness (ILI), influenza, and pneumonia among US military members. We examined rates by vaccination type to identify factors associated with the risk for study outcomes. Results. Compared with those receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine alone, subjects receiving the pH1N1 vaccine, either alone (RR, 0.49) or in addition to the seasonal vaccine (RR, 0.51), had an approximately 50% reduction in ILI, 88% reduction in influenza (RR, 0.11 and 0.12, respectively), and 63% reduction in pneumonia (RR, 0.37 and 0.35, respectively). There was no clinically significant difference in ILI, influenza, or pneumonia attack rates among those receiving the pH1N1 vaccine with or without presence of the seasonal vaccine. Similarly, there was no clinically relevant difference in pH1N1 effectiveness between seasonal TIV and LAIV recipients. Conclusions. During the 2009-2010 pandemic, the pH1N1 vaccination was effective in reducing rates of ILI, influenza, and pneumonia. Administration of the seasonal vaccine should continue without concern of potential interference with a novel pandemic vaccine, though more studies are needed to determine if this is applicable to other influenza seasons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1839-1846
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number11
StatePublished - 17 May 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Influenza
  • influenza-like illness
  • pandemic influenza vaccine
  • vaccine efficacy
  • vaccine formulation


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