Serum Fc-Mediated Monocyte Phagocytosis Activity Is Stable for Several Months after SARS-CoV-2 Asymptomatic and Mildly Symptomatic Infection

Sindhu Vangeti, Sivakumar Periasamy, Peifang Sun, Corey A. Balinsky, Avinash S. Mahajan, Natalia A. Kuzmina, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Elizabeth Cooper, Charmagne Beckett, Jan Marayag, Amethyst Marrone, Edgar Nunez, Yongchao Ge, Chad K. Porter, Carl W. Goforth, Stephen E. Lizewski, Rhonda Lizewski, Vihasi Jani, Victor A. Sugiharto, Megan SchillingXuechen B. Yu, Nada Marjanovic, Mary Catherine George, Alexander Bukreyev, Stuart C. Sealfon*, Andrew G. Letizia*, Irene Ramos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

We investigated the temporal profile of multiple components of the serological response after asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, in a cohort of 67 previously SARS-CoV-2 naive young adults, up to 8.5 months after infection. We found a significant decrease of spike IgG and neutralization antibody titers from early (11 to 56 days) to late (4 to 8.5 months) time points postinfection. Over the study period, S1-specific IgG levels declined significantly faster than that of the S2-specific IgG. Further, serum antibodies from PCR-confirmed participants cross-recognized S2, but not S1, of the betacoronaviruses HKU1 and OC43, suggesting a greater degree of cross-reactivity of S2 among betacoronaviruses. Antibody-Dependent Natural Killer cell Activation (ADNKA) was detected at the early time point but significantly decreased at the late time point. Induction of serum Antibody-Dependent Monocyte Phagocytosis (ADMP) was detected in all the infected participants, and its levels remained stable over time. Additionally, a reduced percentage of participants had detectable neutralizing activity against the Beta (50%), Gamma (61 to 67%), and Delta (90 to 94%) variants, both early and late postinfection, compared to the ancestral strain (100%). Antibody binding to S1 and RBD of Beta, Gamma, Delta (1.7 to 2.3-fold decrease), and Omicron (10 to 16-fold decrease) variants was also significantly reduced compared to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain. Overall, we found variable temporal profiles of specific components and functionality of the serological response to SARS-CoV-2 in young adults, which is characterized by lasting, but decreased, neutralizing activity and antibody binding to S1, stable ADMP activity, and relatively stable S2-specific IgG levels.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMicrobiology Spectrum
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Fc-mediated functions
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • antibodies
  • infection
  • neutralization

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