Context: Subclinical features of zinc deficiency can be challenging to recognize. The prevalence of zinc deficiency based on blood zinc concentration in an adult outpatient clinic setting has not been well-studied. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of low serum zinc concentrations among community-dwelling adults, and to characterize clinical features and risk factors associated with zinc deficiency. Methods: This retrospective pilot prevalence study took place from 2014 to 2017 at an outpatient clinic in southeast Ohio. Patients aged 50 years or older with a stable health status were categorized into a case group with zinc deficiency (serum zinc concentration, <0.66 mg/mL) and a control group (serum zinc concentration, ≥0.66 mg/mL). Measurements included serum zinc concentration, nutritional bio-markers (ie, magnesium, calcium, albumin, and total 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels), patient history of fractures and events such as hospitalization, antibiotic use, and self-reported falls that occurred within 1 year prior to the date serum zinc concentration was measured (index date). Patients were excluded if they had a serum zinc measurement within 2 months after a hospitalization, severe renal insufficiency (3 patients with serum creatinine concentration above 2.5 mg/dL), or serum zinc concentration above 1.20 mg/mL. Results: This study included 157 patients, consisting of a case group of 41 (26%) patients with zinc deficiency and a control group of 116 (74%) without zinc defi-ciency. Mean (SD) zinc concentrations of the case and control groups were 0.58 (0.05) mg/mL and 0.803 (0.13) mg/mL, respectively (P<.01). Patients in the case group were more likely to have had a history of hospitalization, antibiotic use, a fall within 1 year before the index date, and a history of fractures and hip fracture (P<.01 in each case). Patients taking gastric acid suppressants had increased odds of lower zinc concentrations (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.08-4.63). Both logistic and multivariate linear regression models revealed that past fractures, hip fractures, and hypoalbuminemia (albumin <3.5 g/dL) were associated with zinc deficiency or lower zinc concentrations. Conclusion: This study revealed that 26% of patients in an outpatient adult clinic had zinc deficiency based on serum concentrations. Patients with fracture history and low serum albumin were at higher risk for zinc deficiency.
- Zinc deficiency