Severity profile of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury on neurofunctional outcome, blood-brain barrier permeability, and brain edema formation

Deborah A. Shear*, Xi Chun May Lu, Rebecca Pedersen, Guo Wei, Zhiyong Chen, Angela Davis, Changping Yao, Jitendra Dave, Frank C. Tortella

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study evaluated the injury severity profile of unilateral, frontal penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) on neurofunctional outcome, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and brain edema formation. The degree of injury severity was determined by the delivery of a water-pressure pulse designed to produce a temporary cavity by rapid (<40ms) expansion of the probe's elastic balloon calibrated to equal 5%, 10%, 12.5%, or 15% of total rat brain volume (control groups consisted of sham surgery or insertion of the probe only). Neurofunctional assessments revealed motor and cognitive deficits related to the degree of injury severity, with the most clear-cut profile of PBBI injury severity depicted by the Morris water maze (MWM) results. A biphasic pattern of BBB leakage was detected in the injured hemisphere at all injury severity levels at 4h post-injury, and again at 48-72h post-injury, which remained evident out to 7 days post-PBBI in the 10% and 12.5% PBBI groups. Likewise, significant brain edema was detected in the injured hemisphere by 4h post-injury and remained elevated out to 7 days post-injury in the 10% and 12.5% PBBI groups. However, following 5% PBBI, significant levels of edema were only detected from 24h to 48h post-injury. These results identify an injury severity profile of BBB permeability, brain edema, and neurofunctional impairment that provides sensitive and clinically relevant outcome metrics for studying potential therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2185-2195
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume28
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • BBB
  • PBBI
  • cognitive function
  • edema
  • traumatic brain injury

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