Purpose of Review: Biological and societal influences are different for men and women leading to different HIV outcomes and related infectious and non-infectious complications. This review evaluates sex differences in the epidemiology and immunological response to HIV and looks at major complications and coinfections, as well as care delivery systems focusing on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where most people with HIV live. Recent Findings: More women than men access testing and treatment services in LMIC; women are more likely to be virologically suppressed in that environment. There is a growing recognition that the enhanced immunological response to several pathogens including HIV may result in improved outcomes for infectious comorbidities but may result in a greater burden of non-communicable diseases. Summary: Men and women have different requirements for HIV care. Attention to these differences may improve outcomes for all.
- Sex differences