Short communication: HIV type 1 genetic diversity among tea plantation workers in Kericho, Kenya

Miguel A. Arroyo, Warren B. Sateren, Ginamarie Foglia, Rukia Kibaya, Lilian Langat, Monique Wasunna, Christian T. Bautista, Paul T. Scott, Douglas N. Shaffer, Merlin L. Robb, Nelson L. Michael, Deborah L. Birx, Francine E. McCutchan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


In preparation for HIV-1 vaccine trials in Kenya, 2801 study volunteers, from a tea plantation in Kericho, were recruited as part of a prospective vaccine cohort development study. Cryopreserved plasma was available from 401 HIV-positive volunteers, and was the source of viral RNA for genotyping by the multiregion hybridization assay (MHA). Logistic regression was performed to determine association of risk factors and HIV-1 recombinant and dual infections. At baseline, HIV-1 subtype A was the dominant circulating pure subtype (56%), followed by subtype D (10%) and C (5%). Recombinant HIV-1 strains accounted for almost one-third of all infections (29%), with 7% infected with a dual strain of the HIV-1 variants described. A higher number of HIV-1 recombinant and dual infections was observed among volunteers who were 18-24 and 25-29 years of age, affiliated with the Luo tribe, had been married two or more times, reported not being circumcised, and had STI symptoms in the past 6 months. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) significantly associated with HIV-1 recombinant and dual infection were age difference from current spouse (5-9 years; AOR=2.5, 95% CI=1.2-5.3 and ≥10 years; AOR=3.1, 95% CI=1.5-6.4) and reported STI symptoms in the past 6 months (AOR=4.8, 95% CI=2.0-11.6), respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that there is considerable heterogeneity with respect to HIV-1 subtype diversity in this population that should be considered in the planning for future vaccine trials in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1061-1064
Number of pages4
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes


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