Background: Using immunomodulatory methods to address the challenging issue of craniofacial bone repair may be a potentially effective approach. The protease inhibitor saquinavir has been shown to inhibit the inflammatory response by targeting the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation primary response complex. Independently, inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 or myeloid differentiation primary response led to enhanced skull bone repair. Therefore, the authors aimed to investigate the effects of saquinavir on skull bone healing. Methods: The effects of saquinavir on skull bone healing were assessed by means of gene expression, histology, immunohistochemistry, and tomography in a mouse calvarial defect model. Subsequently, the role of saquinavir in cell viability, migration, and osteogenic and osteoclastogenic differentiation was also evaluated in vitro. Results: One-week saquinavir administration improved skull bone healing based on micro-computed tomographic and histomorphometric analyses. Compared to the vehicle control, 1-week saquinavir treatment (1) enhanced osteoclast infiltration (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining) at day 7, but not at days 14 and 28; (2) induced more CD206+M2 macrophage infiltration, but not F4/80+M0 macrophages at days 7, 14, and 28; and (3) elevated osteoclastogenic gene RANKL(quantitative polymerase chain reaction) expression and other osteogenic and cytokine expression. Furthermore, in vitro data showed that saquinavir administration did not influence MC3T3-E1 cell migration or mineralization, whereas higher concentrations of saquinavir inhibited cell viability. Saquinavir treatment also enhanced the osteoclastic differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors, and partially reversed high-mobility group box 1-driven osteoclastogenesis inhibition and elevated proinflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion: The improved skull bone repair following short-term saquinavir treatment may involve enhanced osteoclastogenesis and modulated inflammatory response following skull injury. Clinical Relevance Statement: The authors' work demonstrates improved skull bone healing by short-term application of saquinavir, a drug traditionally used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. As such, saquinavir may be repurposed for skeletal repair.