The SDF-1 3'A allelic polymorphism has been reported to influence either positively or negatively the progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Therefore, the SDF-1 genotype of 729 HIV-1-infected individuals pooled from 3 distinct cohorts was determined. A statistically nonsignificant association between the SDF1-3' A/3'A genotype and accelerated disease progression was evident among seroconverters (n = 319), but a striking correlation of decreased survival after either diagnosis of AIDS according to the 1993 definition or loss of CD4+ T cell counts <200 was observed. The relative hazards for SDF1-3' A/3' A homozygotes, compared with heterozygotes and wild-type homozygotes were 2.16 (P = .0047), for time from diagnosis according to the 1993 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention AIDS case definition (AIDS-'93) to death, and 3.43 (P = .0001), for time from CD4+ T cells <200 to death. Because no difference in survival was observed after diagnosis according to AIDS-'87, the association of the SDF1-3' A/3' A genotype with the accelerated progression of late-stage HIV-1 disease appears to be explained for the most part by the loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes.