Background To study central hypovolemia in humans, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a recognized alternative to blood removal (HEM). While LBNP mimics the cardiovascular responses of HEM in baboons, similarities in hemostatic responses to LBNP and HEM remain unknown in this species. Methods Thirteen anesthetized baboons were exposed to progressive hypovolemia by HEM and, four weeks later, by LBNP. Hemostatic activity was evaluated by plasma markers, thromboelastography (TEG), flow cytometry, and platelet aggregometry at baseline (BL), during and after hypovolemia. Results BL values were indistinguishable for most parameters although platelet count, maximal clot strength (MA), protein C, thrombin anti-thrombin complex (TAT), thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) activity significantly differed between HEM and LBNP. Central hypovolemia induced by either method activated coagulation; TEG R-time decreased and MA increased during and after hypovolemia compared to BL. Platelets displayed activation by flow cytometry; platelet count and functional aggregometry were unchanged. TAFI activity and protein, Factors V and VIII, vWF, Proteins C and S all demonstrated hemodilution during HEM and hemoconcentration during LBNP, whereas tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasmin/anti-plasmin complex, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 did not. Fibrinolysis (TEG LY30) was unchanged by either method; however, at BL, fibrinolysis varied greatly. Post-hoc analysis separated baboons into low-lysis (LY30 <2%) or high-lysis (LY30 >2%) whose fibrinolytic state matched at both HEM and LBNP BL. In high-lysis, BL tPA and LY30 correlated strongly (r = 0.95; P<0.001), but this was absent in low-lysis. In low-lysis, BL TAFI activity and tPA correlated (r = 0.88; P<0.050), but this was absent in high-lysis. Conclusions Central hypovolemia induced by either LBNP or HEM resulted in activation of coagulation; thus, LBNP is an adjunct to study hemorrhage-induced pro-coagulation in baboons. Furthermore, this study revealed a subset of baboons with baseline hyperfibrinolysis, which was strongly coupled to tPA and uncoupled from TAFI activity.