Significant disturbances of sleep architecture and sleep quality can develop in several central nervous system (CNS) infections. The changes in sleep differ among the various infectious agents. Some cases of narcolepsy are believed to be related to postinfectious autoimmune processes by the interaction between innate genetic susceptibility and exposure to specific pathogens. Infection with HIV can give rise to insomnia, daytime fatigue, and depression. Infections of the CNS can affect the brainstem respiratory centers resulting in abnormal breathing patterns during sleep. Parasomnias and alterations in circadian rhythms have been described in some CNS infections.
- Central nervous system infections
- Sleeping sickness