Background: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a multi-organ, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent acute inflammatory response. Methods: Using network analysis, we defined the spatiotemporal dynamics of 20, LPS-induced, protein-level inflammatory mediators over 0–48 h in the heart, gut, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and systemic circulation, in both C57BL/6 (wild-type) and TLR4-null mice. Results: Dynamic Network Analysis suggested that inflammation in the heart is most dependent on TLR4, followed by the liver, kidney, plasma, gut, lung, and spleen, and raises the possibility of non-TLR4 LPS signaling pathways at defined time points in the gut, lung, and spleen. Insights from computational analyses suggest an early role for TLR4-dependent tumor necrosis factor in coordinating multiple signaling pathways in the heart, giving way to later interleukin-17A—possibly derived from pathogenic Th17 cells and effector/memory T cells—in the spleen and blood. Conclusions: We have derived novel, systems-level insights regarding the spatiotemporal evolution acute inflammation.
- Dynamic Network Analysis
- Principal Component Analysis