Spectrum of care provided at an Echelon II medical unit during operation Iraqi freedom

Clinton K. Murray*, Joel C. Reynolds, Jodelle M. Schroeder, Matthew B. Harrison, Osceola M. Evans, Duane R. Hospenthal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


We describe the types of medical problems encountered at a U.S. Army echelon II medical facility during Operation Iraqi Freedom in the period after completion of major ground combat operations, a time of nation restructuring and intermittent, intense, armed conflict. A total of 4,831 patients were assessed between October 1, 2003 and June 30, 2004, 74% with disease and nonbattle injury presentations, 19% with dental complaints, and 7% wounded in action (WIA). Disease and nonbattle injury evaluations were predominantly musculoskeletal. Improvised explosive devices or mortars caused 78% of the WIA casualties. The most frequent dental evaluations were for restorations (47%). Thirty-eight individuals were admitted to holding beds, most commonly to receive intravenous antibiotic treatment for cellulitis (29%). Three hundred forty-one individuals were evacuated, including 150 WIA. Determining the types of casualties seen at forward echelons of medical care during different phases of conflict can aid medical planning and help predict the type of medical resources required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)516-520
Number of pages5
JournalMilitary Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2005
Externally publishedYes


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