Status of vaccine research and development for norovirus

Mark S. Riddle*, Richard I. Walker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


The global health community is beginning to gain an understanding of the global burden of norovirus-associated disease, which appears to have significant burden in both developed- and developing-country populations. Of particular importance is the growing recognition of norovirus as a leading cause of gastroenteritis and diarrhea in countries where rotavirus vaccine has been introduced. While not as severe as rotavirus disease, the sheer number of norovirus infections not limited to early childhood makes norovirus a formidable global health problem. This article provides a landscape review of norovirus vaccine development efforts. Multiple vaccine strategies, mostly relying on virus-like particle antigens, are under development and have demonstrated proof of efficacy in human challenge studies. Several are entering phase 2 clinical development. Norovirus vaccine development challenges include, but are not limited to: valency, induction of adequate immune responses in pediatric and elderly populations, and potential for vaccine-strain mismatch. Given current strategies and global health interest, the outlook for a norovirus vaccine is promising. Because a norovirus vaccine is expected to have a dual market in both developed and developing countries, there would likely be scale-up advantages for commercial development and global distribution. Combination with or expression by another enteric pathogen, such as rotavirus, could also enhance uptake of a norovirus vaccine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2895-2899
Number of pages5
Issue number26
StatePublished - 3 Jun 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjuvants
  • Enteric vaccine development
  • Impact assessment
  • Norovirus
  • Travelers' diarrhea
  • Viral gastroenteritis


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