Survival outcomes of stenting outflow graft stenosis in continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices: a systematic review

Chelsey T. Wood, Thomas J. O’Malley, Elizabeth J. Maynes, Alec Vishnevsky, Rohinton J. Morris, Louis E. Samuels, H. Todd Massey, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Stenosis in the continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) outflow graft is caused by various factors. We discuss indications for percutaneous intervention of outflow graft complications and evaluate the use of this treatment in re-establishing adequate CF-LVAD flow. An electronic search was performed to identify all studies in the English literature reporting CF-LVAD outflow graft stenting. Twenty-one studies consisting of 26 patients were included. Patient-level data were extracted for statistical analysis. Median patient age was 59 years [45.8–67.0] and 65.4% (17/26) were male. 58.3% (14/24) of patients had HeartWare HVAD, 37.5% (9/24) had HeartMate II LVAD, and 4.2% (1/24) had HeartMate III LVAS. Median time from device placement to outflow graft stenting was 24.0 months [7.8–30.4]. 76.9% of patients (20/26) presented with heart failure. Complications of the CF-LVAD outflow graft included thrombosis in nine patients (34.6%), stenosis in nine patients (34.6%), kinking in three patients (11.5%), pseudoaneurysm in one patient (3.8%), external graft compression in one patient (3.8%), and bronchial-arterial fistula in one patient (3.6%). Immediate flow improvement occurred in 23/26 patients (88.5%), with the remaining 11.5% (3/26) requiring additional procedures. Pre- and post-intervention flows were 2.9 L/min [2.0–3.5] and 4.7 L/min [4.1–4.8] respectively (p = 0.01). Of patients, 96.2% (25/26) were discharged with a median time to discharge of 4 days [3.0–5.0]. The 30-day mortality was 6.7% (1/15). Overall mortality during the median follow-up of 90 days was 9.5% (2/21). Outflow graft stenting appears to effectively alleviate CF-LVAD outflow graft obstruction and is associated with low overall mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)985-992
Number of pages8
JournalHeart Failure Reviews
Volume25
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • : Left ventricular assist device
  • Endovascular intervention
  • Outflow graft
  • Stenosis
  • Stenting

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