Testing quick response (QR) codes as an innovation to improve feedback among geographically- separated clerkship sites

Matthew J. Snyder, Dana R. Nguyen, Jasmyne J. Womack*, Christopher W. Bunt, Katie L. Westerfield, Adriane E. Bell, Christy J.W. Ledford

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Collection of feedback regarding medical student clinical experiences for formative or summative purposes remains a challenge across clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a quick response (QR) code-linked online feedback form improves the frequency and efficiency of rater feedback. METHODS: In 2016, we compared paper-based feedback forms, an online feedback form, and a QR code-linked online feedback form at 15 family medicine clerkship sites across the United States. Outcome measures included usability, number of feedback submissions per student, number of unique raters providing feedback, and timeliness of feedback provided to the clerkship director. RESULTS: The feedback method was significantly associated with usability, with QR code scoring the highest, and paper second. Accessing feedback via QR code was associated with the shortest time to prepare feedback. Across four rotations, separate repeated measures analyses of variance showed no effect of feedback system on the number of submissions per student or the number of unique raters. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that preceptors in the family medicine clerkship rate QR code-linked feedback as a high usability platform. Additionally, this platform resulted in faster form completion than paper or online forms. An overarching finding of this study is that feedback forms must be portable and easily accessible. Potential implementation barriers and the social norm for providing feedback in this manner need to be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)188-194
Number of pages7
JournalFamily Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2018


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