The acute inflammatory response in trauma / hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury: Current state and emerging prospects

R. Namas*, A. Ghuma, L. Hermus, R. Zamora, D. O. Okonkwo, T. R. Billiar, Y. Vodovotz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations

Abstract

Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherently detrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and is partially propagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated Molecular Patterns; DAMP's). DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines. Various animal models of T/HS in mice, rats, pigs, dogs, and non-human primates have been utilized in an attempt to move from bench to bedside. Novel approaches, including those from the field of systems biology, may yield therapeutic breakthroughs in T/HS and TBI in the near future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-103
Number of pages7
JournalLibyan Journal of Medicine
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Inflammation
  • Systems biology
  • Trauma
  • Traumatic brain injury

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