The BRAVO Clinical Study Protocol: Oral Varespladib for Inhibition of Secretory Phospholipase A2 in the Treatment of Snakebite Envenoming

on behalf of the BRAVO Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: Snakebite is an urgent, unmet global medical need causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Varespladib is a potent inhibitor of venom secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) that can be administered orally via its prodrug, varespladib-methyl. Extensive preclinical data support clinical evaluation of varespladib as a treatment for snakebite envenoming (SBE). The protocol reported here was designed to evaluate varespladib-methyl for SBE from any snake species in multiple geographies. Methods and Analysis: BRAVO (Broad-spectrum Rapid Antidote: Varespladib Oral for snakebite) is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of oral varespladib-methyl plus standard of care (SoC) vs. SoC plus placebo in patients presenting with acute SBE by any venomous snake species. Male and female patients 5 years of age and older who meet eligibility criteria will be randomly assigned 1:1 to varespladib-methyl or placebo. The primary outcome is the Snakebite Severity Score (SSS) that has been modified for international use. This composite outcome is based on the sum of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, nervous, hematologic, and renal systems components of the updated SSS. Ethics and Dissemination: This protocol was submitted to regulatory authorities in India and the US. A Clinical Trial No Objection Certificate from the India Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation, Drug Controller General-India, and a Notice to Proceed from the US Food and Drug Administration have been obtained. The study protocol was approved by properly constituted, valid institutional review boards or ethics committees at each study site. This study is being conducted in compliance with the April 1996 ICH Guidance for Industry GCP E6, the Integrated Addendum to ICH E6 (R2) of November 2016, and the applicable regulations of the country in which the study is conducted. The trial is registered on Clinical, NCT#04996264 and Clinical Trials Registry-India, 2021/07/045079 000062.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • clinical trial
  • direct toxin inhibitor
  • protocol
  • snakebite
  • snakebite severity score
  • varespladib


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