In 2000, soldiers from a Special Operations Force had airborne lead exposures 20 to 38 times the permissible exposure limit. Their average blood lead level was 13.9 μg/dL. Immediate implementation of pertinent Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations was recommended. In 2003, investigators learned that the unit also used an outdoor firing range with exposures exceeding the permissible exposure limit. Attempts to conduct more detailed evaluations and control measures were hindered by frequent deployments in the unit and a strong commitment to realistic training. Despite these challenges, the controls implemented resulted in limited success. The average blood lead level in the unit was 6.8 μg/dL in 2005, a reduction of 51%. Proper initial range construction is essential to controlling lead exposures at firing ranges. Occupational health specialists caring for these soldiers must identify, assess, and mitigate exposures from firing ranges while respecting the importance of realistic training.