The development and validation of the muscularity-oriented eating test: A novel measure of muscularity-oriented disordered eating

Stuart B. Murray*, Tiffany A. Brown, Aaron J. Blashill, Emilio J. Compte, Jason M. Lavender, Deborah Mitchison, Jonathan M. Mond, Pamela K. Keel, Jason M. Nagata

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Objective: Body dissatisfaction is intricately linked to the development of disordered eating. However, as male body dissatisfaction appears more oriented toward muscularity, versus thinness per se, existing measures of eating disorder psychopathology may lack sensitivity in capturing disordered eating that is muscularity-focused. The aim of the present study was to develop a specific measure of muscularity-oriented disordered eating—the muscularity-oriented eating test (MOET). Method: Candidate items were generated and refined in consultation with eating disorder-focused researchers and focus groups of men with eating disorders. Examination of the MOET comprised two studies, consisting of 511 undergraduate men, divided into two component samples. In Study 1 (n = 307), candidate items were generated and refined via exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then used to confirm the single factor structure in Study 2 (n = 204). Results: EFA revealed a 15-item single factor structure, which was later confirmed through CFA in a separate sample of undergraduate men. Furthermore, the MOET yielded evidence of internal consistency (Study 1: omega = 0.93, 95% CI [0.91, 0.94]; Study 2: omega = 0.92, 95% CI [0.90, 0.93]), 7-day (Study 1) and 21-days (Study 2) test-retest correlation (rs =.75, for Study 1 and 2) and convergent and divergent validity. Discussion: The MOET represents a psychometrically sound, novel measure of muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Future research should examine its utility in clinical samples and research into muscularity-oriented disordered eating.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1389-1398
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Eating Disorders
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • drive for muscularity
  • male eating disorders
  • muscularity-oriented disordered eating
  • muscularity-oriented disordered eating test


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