Contingency management is one of the most effective behavioral interventions for substance use. However, the implementation of contingency management has not been as widespread as might be expected given its efficacy. This review summarizes literature that examines the dissemination and implementation of contingency management for substance use in community (e.g., specialized substance use treatment) and clinical (e.g., primary care) settings. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Databases including Google Scholar, World of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and PubMed were searched. Search results yielded 100 articles and after the screening of titles and abstracts 44 were identified. Full-text articles were examined for eligibility and yielded 24 articles that were included in this review. Of the 24 articles included in the review, the majority (n = 11) focused on implementing contingency management in methadone clinics and opioid treatment programs. Training methods, implementation strategies, fidelity assessments, and attitudes toward the implementation of contingency management are discussed in greater detail. These findings highlight the importance of organizational input and ongoing supervision and consultation, and the need for additional research that is guided by theoretical frameworks and use rigorous study designs.
- Contingency management
- Dissemination and implementation
- Evidence-based practices
- Substance use