The Effect of Preoperative Mental Health Status on Outcomes After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

DONALD F. COLANTONIO, Ahmad Nassr, BRETT A. FREEDMAN, BENJAMIN D. ELDER, Mohamad Bydon, MELVIN D. HELGESON, CHRISTOPHER K. KEPLER, ARJUN S. SEBASTIAN, SCOTT C. WAGNER*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The effect of preoperative mental health on outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is of increasing interest. The purpose of this study was to utilize patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to compare outcomes after ACDF in patients with and without poor mental health. We hypothesized that patients with worse baseline mental health would report worse outcomes after surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing ACDF for degenerative cervical spondylosis with at least 12 months of follow-up were included. Outcomes collected before and after surgery included the RAND-36, Neck Disability Index (NDI), EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D), and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) score. Results: Seventy-one patients were included and assigned to the depression or nondepression group based on baseline mental health. The depression group had worse baseline preoperative scores across all PROMs: NDI (44.2 vs 36.8, P = 0.05), RAND (1511.4 vs 2198.18, P < 0.001), EQ-5D (12.55 vs 10.14, P < 0.001), and SANE (56.3 vs 72.9, P < 0.001). Postoperatively, the depression group had worse scores at the final follow-up for RAND (2242.8 vs 2662.2, P = 0.03) and SANE (71.5 vs 80.8, P = 0.02). Both groups experienced improvements with ACDF across all PROMs. The changes in each PROM were not statistically significant between groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of patients achieving the minimal clinically important difference across PROMs. Conclusion: This study is the first to utilize the RAND-36, EQ-5D, NDI, and SANE scores to assess preoperative mental health and its effect on postoperative outcomes after ACDF. While poor preoperative mental health status yielded significantly worse baseline and postoperative outcomes scores, patients experienced significant improvement in symptoms after ACDF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-239
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Spine Surgery
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ACDF
  • SANE
  • cervical
  • depression
  • mental health
  • patient-reported outcomes

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