Introduction: Racial differences in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) after treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) are not well studied. We compared treatment patterns and HRQoL in African American (AA) and non-AA men undergoing active surveillance (AS), radical prostatectomy (RP), or radiation (XRT). Methods: Men diagnosed with PCa from 2007–2017 in the Center for Prostate Disease Research Database were identified. HRQoL was evaluated using Expanded PCa Index Composite and SF-36 Health Survey. Results: In 1006 men with localized PCa, 223 (22.2%) were AA (mean follow up 5.2 yrs). AA men with low-risk disease were less likely to undergo AS (28.5 vs. 38.8%) and more likely to undergo XRT (22.3 vs. 10.6%) than non-AA men, p < 0.001. In intermediate-risk disease, AA received more XRT (43.0 vs. 26.9%) and less RP (50.5 vs 66.8%), p = 0.016. In all men, RP resulted in worse urinary function and sexual HRQoL compared to AS and XRT. Bowel HRQoL did not vary by treatment in AA men, however, in non-AA men, XRT resulted in worse bowel scores than AS and RP. HRQoL was then compared for each treatment modality. AA men had worse sexual bother (p = 0.024) after RP than non-AA men, No racial differences were found in urinary, bowel, hormonal, or SF-36 scores for men undergoing AS, RP or XRT. Conclusion: AA men are less often treated with AS for low-risk disease and are more likely to undergo XRT. AA men experience worse sexual bother after RP, however, the effect of XRT on bowel symptoms is worse in non-AA men.