The experience, expression, and control of anger following traumatic brain injury in a military sample

Jason M. Bailie*, Wesley R. Cole, Brian Ivins, Cynthia Boyd, Steven Lewis, John Neff, Karen Schwab

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the experience and expression of anger in a military sample. PARTICIPANTS:: A total of 661 military personnel with a history of TBI and 1204 military personnel with no history of TBI. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional, between-group design, using multivariate analysis of variance. MAIN MEASURE:: State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2). RESULTS:: Participants with a history of TBI had higher scores on the STAXI-2 than controls and were 2 to 3 times more likely than the participants in the control group to have at least 1 clinically significant elevation on the STAXI-2. Results suggested that greater time since injury (ie, months between TBI and assessment) was associated with lower scores on the STAXI-2 State Anger scale. CONCLUSION:: Although the results do not take into account confounding psychiatric conditions and cannot address causality, they suggest that a history of TBI increases the risk of problems with the experience, expression, and control of anger. This bolsters the need for proper assessment of anger when evaluating TBI in a military cohort.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-20
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - 21 Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • anger
  • explosive blast injury
  • military injury
  • traumatic brain injury


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