The host response to allogeneic and xenogeneic biological scaffold materials

Timothy J. Keane, Stephen F. Badylak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


The clinical use of biological scaffold materials has become commonplace. Such scaffolds are composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), or components of ECM, derived from allogeneic or xenogeneic tissues. Such scaffold materials vary widely in their source tissue, processing methods and sterilization methods. The success or failure of an ECM scaffold for a given application is dependent on the host response following implantation; a response that is largely mediated by the innate immune system and which is influenced by a numerous factors, including the processing methods used in the preparation of biological scaffolds. The present paper reviews various aspects of the host response to biological scaffolds and factors that affect this response. In addition, some of the logistical, regulatory and reconstructive implications associated with the use of biological scaffolds are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)504-511
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Allogeneic
  • Biological scaffolds
  • Decellularization
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM)
  • Host response
  • Xenogeneic


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