BACKGROUND: Established animal trauma models are limited in recapitulating the pathophysiology of human traumatic injury. Herein, we characterize the physiologic insult and inflammatory response in two clinically relevant non-human primate (NHP) trauma models.
METHODS: Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques underwent either a laparoscopic closed abdomen liver injury (laparoscopic 60% left-lobe hepatectomy) in an established uncontrolled severe hemorrhage model (THM), or a polytrauma hemorrhage model (PHM) involving combined liver and bowel injury, uncontrolled severe hemorrhage as well as an open full-thickness cutaneous flank wound. Fixed volume resuscitation strategies were employed in the THM and goal directed resuscitation was used in the PHM. Complete peripheral blood and critical clinical chemistry parameters, serum biomarkers of systemic inflammation, tissue perfusion parameters, as well as survival, were compared between the models throughout the 2-week study period.
RESULTS: NHPs in both the THM ( n = 7) and the PHM ( n = 21) demonstrated tissue hypoperfusion (peak lactate 6.3 ± 0.71 mmol/L) with end organ injury (peak creatinine 3.08 ± 0.69 mg/dL) from a similar liver injury (60% left hemi-hepatectomy), though the PHM NHPs had a significantly higher blood loss (68.1% ± 12.7% vs. 34.3% ± 2.3%, p = 0.02), lower platelet counts (59 ± 25 vs. 205 ± 46 K/uL, p = 0.03) and a trend towards higher mortality (90.5% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.09). The inflammatory response was robust in both models with peak cytokine (IL-6 > 6000-fold above baseline) and peak leukocyte values (WBC 27 K/uL) typically occurring around t = 240 min from the time of hepatic injury. A more robust systemic inflammatory response was appreciated in the PHM resulting in marked elevations in peak serum IL-6 (7887 ± 2521 pg/mL vs.1076 ± 4833 pg/mL, p = 0.02), IL-1ra (34,499 ± 5987 pg/mL vs. 2511 ± 1228 pg/mL, p < 0.00), and IL-10 (13,411 pg/mL ± 5598 pg/mL vs. 617 pg/mL ± 252 pg/mL, p = 0.03).
CONCLUSION: This comparative analysis provides a unique longitudinal perspective on the post-injury inflammatory response in two clinically relevant models, and demonstrates that the addition of septic stimuli to solid organ injury increases both the hemorrhagic insult and inflammatory response.