The lost art of whole blood transfusion in austere environments

Geir Strandenes*, Tor A. Hervig, Christopher K. Bjerkvig, Steve Williams, Håkon S. Eliassen, Theodor K. Fosse, Hans Torvanger, Andrew P. Cap

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The optimal resuscitation fluid for uncontrolled bleeding and hemorrhagic shock in both pre-and in-hospital settings has been an ongoing controversy for decades. Hemorrhage continues to be a major cause of death in both the civilian and military trauma population, and survival depends on adequacy of hemorrhage control and resuscitation between onset of bleeding and arrival at a medical treatment facility. The terms far-forward and austere are defined, respectively, as the environment where professional health care providers normally do not operate and a setting in which basic equipment and capabilities necessary for resuscitation are often not available. The relative austerity of a treatment setting may be a function of timing rather than just location, as life-saving interventions must be performed quickly before hemorrhagic shock becomes irreversible. Fresh whole blood transfusions in the field may be a feasible life-saving procedure when facing significant hemorrhage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-134
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Sports Medicine Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - 11 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


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