The Mitigation of Racial Disparities in Cervical Cancer Screening Among U.S. Active Duty Service Women

Jessica Pope, Amanda Banaag, Cathaleen Madsen, Tranessia Hanson, Munziba Khan, Tracey Perez Koehlmoos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends regular cervical cancer screening for women aged 21-65 years. Such screening is key to reducing mortality and morbidity. Despite improvement in the screening rate, cervical cancer still disproportionately affects women of minority groups because of access to quality health care. The Military Health System (MHS) mitigates this barrier through universal healthcare coverage for all active duty service members and their families. However, such racial/ethnic disparities, seen in civilian population, have not been studied in the MHS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study utilizing fiscal years 2011-2016 claims data obtained from the MHS Data Repository for 112,572 active duty service women aged 21-64 years. Study analyses included descriptive statistics on patient demographics, calculations of the proportion of patients who received cervical cancer screenings as well as the proportion of patients in compliance with USPSTF guidelines, and unadjusted odds ratios for the likelihood of compliance by race and military service. RESULTS: Of the study population, 50.0% of active duty women were screened for cervical cancer. When compared to White women, Black (1.05 OR, 1.03-1.08 CI), Native American/Alaskan Native (1.26 OR, 1.15-1.39 CI), and Other (1.12 OR, 1.06-1.18 CI) women were significantly more likely to receive cervical cancer screenings. The proportions of 3-year compliance were relatively equal within each race category (ranging from 43% to 45%), with no significant findings for the odds of compliance in any race when compared to White active duty women; however, proportions of 3-year compliance by service ranged from 11.7% in the Marines to 84.4% in the Navy, and active duty women in the Navy were six times more likely to be in compliance with guidelines than women in the Army. When looking at 5-year compliance in active duty women aged 30-64 years, women in the Navy were more likely than women in the Army to meet compliance guidelines (1.24 OR, 1.14-1.36 CI), while women in the Air Force were slightly less likely (0.90 OR, 0.82-0.98 CI). CONCLUSIONS: The women in our population demonstrated similar or lower compliance than other studies conducted in the U.S. general population, and racial disparities for cervical cancer screening were partially mitigated in active duty service women. While our research demonstrates that universal insurance can help provide equal access and care, investigation into the factors that encourage greater usage among members of different military branches may help to understand and develop policies to improve health care systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e373-e378
JournalMilitary Medicine
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - 26 Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


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