The promotion of a constructive macrophage phenotype by solubilized extracellular matrix

Brian M. Sicari, Jenna L. Dziki, Bernard F. Siu, Christopher J. Medberry, Christopher L. Dearth, Stephen F. Badylak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

189 Scopus citations


The regenerative healing response of injured skeletal muscle is dependent upon a heterogeneous population of responding macrophages, which show a phenotypic transition from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the alternatively activated and constructive M2 phenotype. Biologic scaffolds derived from mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used for the repair and reconstruction of a variety of tissues, including skeletal muscle, and have been associated with an M2 phenotype and a constructive and functional tissue response. The mechanism(s) behind in-vivo macrophage phenotype transition in skeletal muscle and the enhanced M2:M1 ratio associated with ECM bioscaffold use in-vivo are only partially understood. The present study shows that degradation products from ECM bioscaffolds promote alternatively activated and constructive M2 macrophage polarization in-vitro, which in turn facilitates migration and myogenesis of skeletal muscle progenitor cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8605-8612
Number of pages8
Issue number30
StatePublished - Oct 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Extracellular matrix (ECM)
  • Immune response
  • Immunomodulation
  • Macrophage
  • Progenitor cell
  • Stem cell


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