The SOAP Feedback Training Program

Binny Chokshi*, Alexis Battista, Jerusalem Merkebu, Shana Hansen, Benjamin Blatt, Joseph Lopreiato

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Accessible and efficient opportunities for health professional faculty to hone feedback skills are limited. In addition, feedback models to apply to the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) setting are lacking. Approach: Annually, paediatric interns from Children's National Hospital and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center participate in an OSCE, which includes faculty observation and immediate feedback to trainees. In 2018, we incorporated the subjective, objective, assessment, plan (SOAP) Feedback Training Program during 20 min of the pre-OSCE faculty orientation. The SOAP Feedback Training Program introduced the SOAP feedback model (subjective, objective, assessment, plan), facilitated practice in pairs and distributed a cognitive aid referencing the model. We evaluated the quality of faculty feedback exchanges during the 2018 OSCE via retrospective video review using the Direct Observation of Clinical Skills Feedback Scale (DOCS-FBS). We compared the results to the 2015 initial evaluation and used focus groups to understand how and why faculty feedback changed. Evaluation: Comparison of the initial evaluation to the post-SOAP Feedback Training Program intervention data using a Wilcoxon signed rank test showed statistically significant improvement in six of eight feedback items on the DOCS-FBS. Causal coding of focus group transcripts revealed that the SOAP Feedback Training Program evoked affective responses, reinforced prior practice in feedback delivery, improved feedback organisation and increased feedback delivery preparation. Implications: The SOAP Feedback Training Program is an effective intervention to teach the SOAP feedback model and improve faculty feedback quality in an OSCE setting. It is efficient and low resource, facilitating its potential use in settings beyond the OSCE.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13611
JournalClinical Teacher
Issue number6
StateAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Simulation, Simulation-Based Learning, Mixed-Methods, Feedback, Causal Coding


Dive into the research topics of 'The SOAP Feedback Training Program'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this