TRAF-interacting protein with a forkhead-associated domain (TIFA) is a tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) binding protein that mediates IL-1 signaling. We recently reported that TIFA mRNA is significantly upregulated early in the liver after trauma and hemorrhagic shock. In this study, we sought to characterize the upregulation of TIFA by hypoxia-reoxygenation and investigate its role in hypoxia-induced signaling. TIFA expression was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in both mouse hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation (HS-R) and hepatocytes exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Involvement of TLR4 and MyD88 was assessed using cells from TLR4-/- and MyD88-/- mice. The interaction of TIFA with TRAF6 and IRAK-1 was investigated using coimmunoprecipitation in vitro. RNAi was performed to knock down the endogenous expression of the TIFA gene in hepatocytes. High-mobility-group box 1 protein (HMGB1) expression was detected by Western blotting and ELISA, and the activation of NF-κB and MAPK was measured with EMSA and Western blotting. The results showed that TIFA expression was upregulated after HS-R in vivo and hypoxia-reoxygenation in vitro. Further analysis revealed that hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced upregulation of TIFA was TLR4- and MyD88-dependent. Moreover, TIFA was found to associate with TRAF6 constitutively, whereas its association with IRAK-1 was seen only after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Suppression of TIFA by siRNA reduced NF-κB activation and HMGB1 upregulation and release after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Taken together, these data suggest that TIFA is involved in the regulation of cell signaling in hypoxia-reoxygenation. The increase in TIFA level appears to be a feed-forward mechanism involved in TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling, leading to NF-κB activation and HMGB1 release.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|State||Published - 2013|
- Free radicals