Traumatic brain injury and severe uncontrolled haemorrhage with short delay pre-hospital resuscitation in a swine model

Kohsuke Teranishi, Anke Scultetus, Ashraful Haque, Susan Stern, Nora Philbin, Jennifer Rice, Todd Johnson, Charles Auker, Richard McCarron, Daniel Freilich, Franoise Arnaud*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Introduction: Unavailability of blood (and oxygen delivery) for pre-hospital resuscitation in haemorrhagic shock patients are major problems, supporting the importance for novel resuscitation strategies. In a combined polytrauma model of uncontrolled haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in swine, we investigated if pre-hospital administration of the haemoglobin based oxygen carrier HBOC-201 will improve tissue oxygenation and physiologic parameters compared to Lactated Ringer's (LR) solution. Materials and methods: Anaesthetised Yorkshire swine underwent fluid-percussion TBI and Grade III liver laceration. During a 30-min pre-hospital phase, the animals were resuscitated with a single infusion of HBOC-201, LR solution, or nothing (NON). Upon hospital arrival, the animals were given blood or normal saline as needed. Surviving animals were euthanised 6 h post-injury. Cerebral blood flow was measured by microsphere injection, and pathology was assessed by gross observation and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Mean TBI force (2.4 ± 0.1 atm) (means ± standard error of the mean) and blood loss (22.5 ± 1.7 mL/kg) were similar between groups. Survival at the 6 h endpoint was similar in all groups (∼50%). Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and brain tissue oxygen tension were significantly greater in HBOC-201 as compared with LR animals (p < 0.005). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) were not significantly different amongst groups. Blood transfusion requirements were delayed in HBOC-201 animals. Animals treated with HBOC-201 or LR showed no immunohistopathological differences in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). Severity of subarachnoid and intraparenchymal haemorrhages were similar for HBOC and LR groups. Conclusion: In this polytrauma swine model of uncontrolled haemorrhage and TBI with a 30-min delay to hospital arrival, pre-hospital resuscitation with one bolus of HBOC-201 indicated short term benefits in systemic and cerebrovascular physiological parameters. True clinical benefits of this strategy need to be confirmed on TBI and haemorrhagic shock patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)585-593
Number of pages9
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2012


  • Haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier
  • Haemorrhagic shock
  • Polytrauma
  • Resuscitation
  • Traumatic brain injury


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