In 1990, more than 27,000 patients died of liver failure in the United States1. Perfusion through a liver from another person or a member of another species, such as a monkey, outside the body was used in the past to stabilize the condition of some patients with acute or subacute liver failure2–5. Few patients survived, however, and this approach was superseded by orthotopic liver transplantation6. Liver transplantation is associated with higher mortality for patients with fulminant hepatic failure than for patients with chronic liver disease, however. Patients with fulminant hepatic failure often have multiorgan failure and.