Trunk position influences the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the lead lower extremity during the forward lunge exercise

Shawn Farrokhi, Christine D. Pollard, Richard B. Souza, Yu Jen Chen, Stephen Reischl, Christopher M. Powers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

116 Scopus citations

Abstract

Fish eye STUDY DESIGN: Experimental laboratory study. Fish eye OBJECTIVES: To examine how a change in trunk position influences the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the lead lower extremity during the forward lunge exercise. Fish eye BACKGROUND: Altering the position of the trunk during the forward lunge exercise is thought to affect the muscular actions of the lead lower extremity. However, no studies have compared the biomechanical differences between the traditional forward lunge and its variations. Fish eye METHODS AND MEASURES: Ten healthy adults (5 males, 5 females; mean age ± SD, 26.7 ± 3.2 years) participated. Lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and surface electromyographic (EMG) data were obtained while subjects performed 3 lunge exercises: normal lunge with the trunk erect (NL), lunge with the trunk forward (LTF), and lunge with trunk extension (LTE). A 1-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare lower extremity kinematics, joint impulse (area under the moment-time curve), and normalized EMG (highest 1-second window of activity for selected lower extremity muscles) among the 3 lunge conditions. Fish eye RESULTS: During the LTF condition, significant increases were noted in peak hip flexion angle, hip extensor and ankle plantar flexor impulse, as well as gluteus maximus and biceps femoris EMG (P<.015) when compared to the NL condition. During the LTE condition, a significant increase was noted in peak ankle dorsiflexion angle and a significant decrease was noted in peak hip flexion angle (P<.015) compared to the NL condition. Fish eye CONCLUSIONS: Performing a lunge with the trunk forward increased the hip extensor impulse and the recruitment of the hip extensors. In contrast, performing a forward lunge with the trunk extended did not alter joint impulse or activation of the lower extremity musculature. Fish eye LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, level 5.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-409
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Volume38
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2008
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • EMG
  • Impulse
  • Weight bearing

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