Background: Adenovirus is a recognized cause of influenza-like illness (ILI). The proportion of ILI attributable to adenovirus is not known. Moreover, knowledge gaps remain with respect to the epidemiologic, virologic, and clinical characteristics of adenovirus-associated ILI among otherwise healthy individuals. Methods: An observational, longitudinal study of <65-year-old patients with febrile ILI at five medical centers was conducted from 2009 to 2014. Nasopharyngeal specimens obtained at enrollment were first tested by single-reaction PCR for adenovirus, then further evaluated by a multiplex PCR assay for other respiratory viral pathogens. Symptoms over a 28-day period were collected. Results: We enrolled 1536 individuals, among whom 43 (2·8%) were positive for adenovirus. The median age of cases was 3·4 years (range: 4 months to 41 years). Three were hospitalized. Species and serotype information was available for 33 (76·7%) cases. Species C (n = 21) was the most common, followed by B3 (n = 9) and one each of E4a, D46, and A. Species C infections were more frequent in children (P < 0·01). Half of the cases were positive for at least one other respiratory viral pathogen. Symptoms were generally mild and most commonly included cough (90%), fatigue (79%), rhinorrhea (74%), loss of appetite (71%), and sore throat (64%). Children with non-C adenovirus infection were more likely to report sore throat (P = 0·05) and hoarseness (P = 0·06) than those with species C infection. Conclusions: Adenovirus is frequently detected with other respiratory viruses. Persons with non-C adenovirus infections reported more severe symptoms, suggesting there may be species-specific differences in virulence and/or host response to infection.
- influenza-like illness