Background: Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) create an immediate surge in blood product demand. We hypothesize local inventories in major U.S. cities would not meet this demand. Study Design and Methods: A simulated blast in a large crowd estimated casualty numbers. Ideal resuscitation was defined as equal amounts of red blood cells (RBCs), plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate. Inventory was prospectively collected from six major U.S. cities at six time points between January and July 2019. City-wide blood inventories were classified as READY (>1 U/injured survivor), DEFICIENT (<10 U/severely injured survivor), or RISK (between READY and DEFICIENT), before and after resupply from local distribution centers (DC), and features of DEFICIENT cities were identified. Results: The simulated blast resulted in 2218 injured survivors including 95 with severe injuries. Balanced resuscitation would require between 950 and 2218 units each RBC, plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate. Inventories in 88 hospitals/health systems and 10 DCs were assessed. Of 36 city-wide surveys, RISK inventories included RBCs (n = 16; 44%), plasma (n = 24; 67%), platelets (n = 6; 17%), and cryoprecipitate (n = 22; 61%) while DEFICIENT inventories included platelets (n = 30; 83%) and cryoprecipitate (n = 12; 33%). Resupply shifted most RBC and plasma inventories to READY, but some platelet and cryoprecipitate inventories remained at RISK (n = 24; 67% and n = 12; 33%, respectively) or even DEFICIENT (n = 11; 31% and n = 6; 17%, respectively). Cities with DEFICIENT inventories were smaller (p <.001) with fewer blood products per trauma bed (p <.001). Discussion: In this simulated blast event, blood product demand exceeded local supply in some major U.S. cities. Options for closing this gap should be explored to optimize resuscitation during MCIs.
- blood management
- mass casualty incidents
- massive transfusion
- transfusion practices (surgical)