Utilization of extracorporeal life support for diffuse alveolar damage and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage: A systematic review

Haritha G. Reddy, Elizabeth J. Maynes, Abhiraj Saxena, Melissa A. Austin, Thomas J. O’Malley, Marc N. Gadda, Nawar N. Al-Rawas, Michael Baram, Bharat K. Awsare, H. Todd Massey, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Modern extracorporeal life-support (ECLS) technology has been successfully utilized to treat patients with diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH); however, reports in the literature remain scarce. We sought to pool existing evidence to better characterize ECLS use in these patients. An electronic search was conducted to identify all studies in the English literature reporting the use of ECLS for DAD/DAH. Thirty-two articles consisting of 38 patients were selected, and patient-level data were extracted and pooled for analysis. Median patient age was 36 [IQR: 27, 48] years, and the majority (63.2%) were female. Most common etiological factors included granulomatosis with polyangiitis (8/38, 21.1%), systemic lupus erythematosus (8/38, 21.1%), Goodpasture's syndrome (4/38, 10.5%), and microscopic polyangiitis (4/38, 10.5%). Immunologic markers included anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) in 15/38 (39.5%), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) in 6/38 (15.8%), and anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies in 4/38 (10.5%). DAH was present in 32/38 (84.2%) of cases and DAD without evidence of DAH was present in 6/38 (15.8%) of cases. ECLS strategies included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation of veno-venous type (VV-ECMO) in 28/38 (73.7%), veno-arterial type (VA-ECMO) in 5/38 (13.2%), and one case of right ventricular assist device with oxygenator (RVAD-ECMO). Heparin was utilized in 18/38 (47.4%) of cases with no difference in use between DAH versus no DAH (P =.46) or VA- versus VV-ECLS (P = 1). Median duration of ECLS was 10 [5, 14] days. Pre- versus post-ECLS comparison of blood gases showed improvement in median PaO2 (49 [45, 59] mm Hg vs. 80 [70, 99] mm Hg, P <.001), PaO2:FiO2 ratio (48.2 [41.4, 54.8] vs. 182.0 [149.4, 212.2], P <.01), and pulse oximetry values (76% [72, 80] vs. 96% [94, 97], P =.086). Overall, 94.7% (36/38) of patients survived to decannulation while 30-day mortality was 10.5% (4/38) with no differences between VA- and VV-ECMO (P = 1 and P =.94, respectively). DAD/DAH occurs in a younger, predominantly female population, and tends to be associated with systemic autoimmune processes. ECLS, independent of its type, appears to result in favorable short-term survival.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)559-568
Number of pages10
JournalArtificial Organs
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • autoimmune
  • diffuse alveolar damage
  • diffuse alveolar hemorrhage
  • extracorporeal life support
  • extracorporeal membrane oxygenation


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