Vaccine value profile for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

Ibrahim Khalil*, John D. Anderson, Karoun H. Bagamian, Shahida Baqar, Birgitte Giersing, William P. Hausdorff, Caroline Marshall, Chad K. Porter, Richard I. Walker, A. Louis Bourgeois

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhoea, especially among children in low-resource settings, and travellers and military personnel from high-income countries. WHO's primary strategic goal for ETEC vaccine development is to develop a safe, effective, and affordable ETEC vaccine that reduces mortality and morbidity due to moderate-to-severe diarrhoeal disease in infants and children under 5 years of age in LMICs, as well as the long-term negative health impact on infant physical and cognitive development resulting from infection with this enteric pathogen. An effective ETEC vaccine will also likely reduce the need for antibiotic treatment and help limit the further emergence of antimicrobial resistance bacterial pathogens. The lead ETEC vaccine candidate, ETVAX, has shown field efficacy in travellers and has moved into field efficacy testing in LMIC infants and children. A Phase 3 efficacy study in LMIC infants is projected to start in 2024 and plans for a Phase 3 trial in travellers are under discussion with the U.S. FDA. Licensing for both travel and LMIC indications is projected to be feasible in the next 5–8 years. Given increasing recognition of its negative impact on child health and development in LMICs and predominance as the leading etiology of travellers’ diarrhoea (TD), a standalone vaccine for ETEC is more cost-effective than vaccines targeting other TD pathogens, and a viable commercial market also exists. In contrast, combination of an ETEC vaccine with other vaccines for childhood pathogens in LMICs would maximize protection in a more cost-effective manner than a series of stand-alone vaccines. This ‘Vaccine Value Profile’ (VVP) for ETEC is intended to provide a high-level, holistic assessment of available data to inform the potential public health, economic and societal value of pipeline vaccines and vaccine-like products. This VVP was developed by a working group of subject matter experts from academia, non-profit organizations, public private partnerships, and multi-lateral organizations. All contributors have extensive expertise on various elements of the ETEC VVP and collectively aimed to identify current research and knowledge gaps. The VVP was developed using only existing and publicly available information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S95-S113
StatePublished - 3 Nov 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Clinical development
  • Clinical research
  • ETEC
  • Epidemiology
  • LMIC
  • Vaccine
  • Vaccine Value


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