Validation of Arabic versions of three sleep surveys

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BACKGROUND: Research on sleep health is lacking in developing countries, particularly among the Sudanese population. This contributes to a number of social and safety risks such as workplace injury, daytime sleepiness, automobile accidents, and more. The current study aims to validate three Arabic questionnaires related to sleep health, namely the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS).

METHODS: A random sample of 83 Sudanese participants was surveyed for the purpose of testing the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the ESS, ISI, and RLS. The present study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of item scores to examine a potential single-factor structure of the ESS, ISI, and RLS. Reliability and validity of the instruments were assessed by internal consistency and construct validity, respectively.

RESULTS: The internal consistency within the ESS, ISI, and RLS subscales was high, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.84, 0.87, and 0.94, respectively. EFA results showed the RLS and ISI scales were dominated by a single-factor structure that explained at least 84.2% and 65.70% respectively of the total variance. The ESS required a two-factor solution that explained 64.5% of the total variance, so the single-factor structure does not appear to be a good measure of the Arabic version of the ESS.

CONCLUSION: The Arabic versions of the ESS, ISI, and RLS are valid and reliable tools. The RLS and ISI seem to have better psychometric properties than the ESS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-6
Number of pages7
JournalQatar Medical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


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