Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), also known as hereditary multiple osteochondroma (HMO), is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by pathogenic variants in exostosin-1 or -2 (EXT1 or EXT2). It is characterized by the formation of multiple benign growing osteochondromas (exostoses) that most commonly affect the long bones; however, it may also occur throughout the body. Although many of these lesions are clinically asymptomatic, some can lead to chronic pain and skeletal deformities and interfere with adjacent neurovascular structures. Here, we report two unrelated probands that presented with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of HME with venous malformation, a clinical feature not previously reported in individuals with HME.
- hereditary multiple exostoses
- vascular malformation