VIP receptor antagonists inhibit mammary carcinogenesis in C3(1)SV40T antigen mice

Terry W. Moody*, James Dudek, Halina Zakowicz, James Walters, Robert T. Jensen, Emmanual Petricoin, Chris Couldrey, Jeff E. Green

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


The effects of a vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist on mammary carcinogenesis were investigated using the C3(1)SV40T antigen (ag) mice. Ten μg/day VIPhybrid (VIPhyb) administered daily subcutaneously increased significantly the survival of C3(1)SV40Tag mice. At 5.2 months, VIPhyb significantly reduced the mammary tumor burden in C3(1)SV40Tag mice relative to control animals. 125I-VIP bound with high affinity to mouse mammary tumor homogenate. Because (Lys15, Arg16, Leu27)VIP1-7GRF8-27 (VPAC1 selective) but not Ro25-1553 (VPAC2 selective) inhibited specific 125I-VIP binding to mammary tumor membranes with high affinity, VPAC1 receptors predominate. By RT-PCR, VPAC1 receptor mRNA was detected in mammary tumors. By Western blot, a major 60 Kdalton band was detected in mammary tumor extracts using VPAC1 receptor antisera. By immunocytochemistry, VPAC1-R immunostaining was detected in the cytosol and plasma membrane but not the nucleus of fixed mammary tumor tissue. Using laser capture microdissected tumor cells and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) techniques on mammary tumor cells, the proteomic profile was altered in mice treated with VIPhyb. Because VPAC1 receptor antagonists increase the survival and reduce the tumor burden in C3(1)SV40Tag mice, they may function as chemopreventive agents in mammary cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1345-1357
Number of pages13
JournalLife Sciences
Issue number11
StatePublished - 30 Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemoprevention
  • Mammary carcinogenesis
  • Proteomics
  • Transgenic mice
  • VIP receptor antagonist


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