Background. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and present in higher rates in black subjects. This study assessed vitamin D levels in HIV cases versus noninfected matched controls to determine if deficiency was associated with BMD and HIV clinical outcomes.Methods. In total, 271 military beneficiaries with HIV underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) screening in 2001-2. Serum 25OH-vitamin D levels were determined using stored serum from the time of DEXA and 6-18 months prior. Two non-HIV-infected controls for each active duty case (n = 205) were matched on age, sex, race, zip code, and season using the Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR). Vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL were considered deficient. HIV-related factors and clinical outcomes were assessed using data collected in the DoD HIV Natural History study.Results. In total, 165 of 205 (80.5%) active duty HIV cases had 2 matched controls available. HIV cases had greater odds of for vitamin D deficiency (VDD) compared with controls (demographics adjusted paired data odds ratio [OR], 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI],. 87-2.45), but this was not statistically significant. Blacks were disproportionately deficient (P <.001) but not relative to HIV status or BMD. Low BMD was associated with typical risk factors (low body mass index and exercise levels, alcohol use); given limited available data the relationship between tenofovir exposure and VDD or low BMD could not be determined. Analysis of HIV-specific factors and outcomes such as exposure to antiretrovirals, HIV progression, hospitalizations, and death revealed no significant associations with vitamin D levels.Conclusions. VDD was highly prevalent in black HIV- infected persons but did not explain the observed racial disparity in BMD. Vitamin D deficiency was not more common among HIV- infected persons, nor did it seem associated with HIV- related factors/clinical outcomes.