Vitamin D levels and influenza vaccine immunogenicity among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults

Nancy F. Crum-Cianflone*, Seunghyun Won, Rachel Lee, Tahaniyat Lalani, Anuradha Ganesan, Timothy Burgess, Brian K. Agan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background Vaccination is the most important preventive strategy against influenza, however post-vaccination antibody responses are often inadequate especially among HIV-infected persons. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to adversely influence immune responses and is highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. Therefore, we evaluated the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and post-influenza vaccination responses. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study evaluating the immunogenicity of monovalent influenza A (H1N1) vaccination among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults (18–50 years of age) during the 2009–2010 influenza season. Antibody titers were evaluated at baseline, day 28, and 6 months post-vaccination using hemagluttination inhibition assays. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured at day 28. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses examined the association between 25(OH)D levels [categorized as <20 ng/ml (deficiency) vs. ⩾20 ng/ml] with the primary outcome of seroconversion. Secondary outcomes included seroprotection; a ⩾4-fold increase in titers; and geometric mean titers post-vaccination. Analyses were repeated using 25(OH)D levels as a continuous variable. Results A total of 128 adults [64 HIV-infected (median CD4 count 580 cells/mm3) and 64 HIV-uninfected] were included. Seroconversion at day 28 post-vaccination was achieved in fewer HIV-infected participants compared with HIV-uninfected participants (56% vs. 74%, p = 0.03). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent among HIV-infected persons vs. HIV-uninfected persons (25% vs. 17%), although not significantly different (p = 0.39). There were no associations found between lower 25(OH)D levels and poorer antibody responses at day 28 or 6 months for any of the study outcomes among either HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected adults. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was common among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults, but lower levels did not predict antibody responses after H1N1 (2009) influenza vaccination. Low 25(OH)D levels do not explain poorer post-vaccination responses among HIV-infected persons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5040-5046
Number of pages7
Issue number41
StatePublished - 22 Sep 2016


  • HIV-infected persons
  • Immunogenicity
  • Influenza vaccine
  • Vitamin D level


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