Workplace Determinants of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in U.S. Mariners during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Ahmad H. Yassin, June T. Spector, Luke Mease, Alice Shumate, Ryan Hill, Jennifer E. Lincoln, Marissa G. Baker*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


United States (U.S.) mariners continued sailing throughout COVID-19. Many aspects of their work could make them prone to adverse mental health outcomes but research on workplace determinants of their mental health during COVID-19 is limited. Between January and July 2021 an online survey assessed the outcomes of increased depressive symptoms, increased anxiety symptoms, and increased perceived stress in addition to concerns, worries, and experiences when sailing during COVID-19, job satisfaction, and safety climate in n = 1384 U.S. mariners. Demographic measures were also collected. Logistic regression models (for depression and anxiety) and a linear regression model (for stress) were developed. We found that increased COVID-19 concerns and poor self-reported mental health were related to increased odds of likely depression and anxiety and higher stress. Mariners who experienced more adverse experiences aboard a vessel had increased stress and increased odds of depression. Poor sleep quality was also related to increased odds of depression, and poor vessel support/safety culture was related to higher stress. Differences in outcomes were seen by vessel type, age, and credential in regression analyses. Results from this study will help to prioritize interventions to minimize the mental health impacts of COVID-19, and influence evidence-based recommendations to improve the mental health of mariners going forward.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16628
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • mariners
  • maritime
  • stress
  • workplace factors


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